Articles – C


“Calandria” in this entry some of the effects of boiling wort are listed but it doesn’t mention that during the boil Maillard reactions take place causing colour and flavour changes, enzymes are destroyed, the pH decreases and the wort becomes more concentrated due to evaporation.

“Caledonian Brewery” in this entry it states that Deuchar’s IPA “is not actually an IPA at all” but doesn’t say why this is the case. To quote beer historian Ron Pattinson: “Judging a modern British beer by the style guidelines of 1850 is ludicrous”.

“California” at page 204 states that “[T]he state of California’s influence on American beer culture cannot be underestimated.” It CAN be underestimated. What it cannot be is OVERestimated. (For the widespread problem of overnegation see eg here.)

“Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA)” entry at page 208 states “CAMRA was founded in 1971 at the most westerly point in Europe – Kruge’s Bar in Dunquin, Co. Kerry, Ireland …” The name of the bar is Kruger’s Bar. “Kruger” is pronounced with a soft “g”. CAMRA also recognise bottle conditioned beers as being “real ales” and promote them as “real ale in a bottle”. Awards at CAMRA festivals are often determined by public vote, not a panel of CAMRA members and pubs included in the Good Beer Guide will not display a “Good Pub Guide” notice as the Good Pub Guide is a separate, rival publication.

“Canada” entry at page 211 states that beer was probably introduced to Canada by French settlers in what is now Quebec in the 17th century. Brewing in Newfoundland may well be older than in New France. There was a brew-house at Cupids, Newfoundland in 1612 according to the town’s website. There was a brewhouse at Ferryland, Newfoundland in the 1620s [see Fish into Wine, by P. Pope, 2004 at page 55.] 224 bushels of malt was imported into the Newfoundland plantation in 1639 [see Fish into Wine at page 366.] Consideration should also be given to the likelihood of brewing by over-wintering Vikings at L’Anse aux Meadow, Newfoundland around 1000 AD and even by English cod fishermen on Newfoundland in the late 1500s. Also, at page 212 it states that “Lagers came to Canada later, with the settling of the Canadian Prairies by immigrants from central Europe.” [See comments at A Good Beer Blog at post “Book Review: The Oxford Companion To Beer”.] Allen Winn Sneath in Brewed in Canada states in 1858 John Walz built Toronto’s first lager brewery. In 1844, the Preston Lager Brewery in Preston, Canada West, now part of Cambridge, Ontario.

“candi sugar” this entry mixes up Maillard reactions and caramelisation which are in fact different processes and doesn’t say which particular sugar candi sugar is chemically (sucrose?)

“canning” entry at page 215 states “…Gottfried Krueger Brewing Co… founded in 1899…” In 1865, Gottfried Krueger and partner Gottlieb Hill bought the former brewery of Laible (Krueger’s uncle) & Adams founded in 1852 as Adams & Braun, forming Hill & Krueger. Hill retired in 1875 and the company would be incorporated as “Gottfried Krueger Brewing Co.” in 1889. [Source: 100 Years of Brewing (1903) and The Documentary History of the United States Brewers Association (1896)]. Somewhat confusingly, the brewery’s own advertising claimed “Since 1858” in the post-Repeal era. So, whichever year one wants to date the brewery from, it wasn’t 1899. It also states that “On December 3, 1935, the first canned beer outside the United States was released by the small Felinfoel Brewery Company of Llanelli in Wales”. In fact the first European canned beer appeared in 1933, when a French brewery called Moreau and company of Vezelise, Lorraine, advertised its “bieres en boites” as “Le Gout du Jour” – “The Taste of Today”.

“caramel color” this entry says Sinamar is a product name for a caramel formulated to meet the requirements of the Reinheitsgebot. But to meet these requirements Sinamar is actually a beer made from roasted malt which is then concentrated, not a caramel made by boiling sugar with ammonia.

“Carlsberg group” this entry states that at the Carlsberg Laboratory, opened in 1875, Johan Kjeldahl “devised the analytical principles used for centuries to determine proteins”. Decades yes, or even over a century but centuries no.

“cask” this entry states that “After filing, a plastic or wooden stopper called a shive is driven into the large bunghole on the belly, and a smaller one called a keystone is driven into the tap hole.” In fact the keystone is driven into the tap hole before filling as the cask would leak otherwise.

“Catherine the Great” entry at page 230 states “By 1781 Thrale had sold his brewery to his brewing supervisor, John Perkins, and a member of the Barclays banking family.” Henry Thrale died on 4 April 1781, which was what prompted the sale of the brewery. Even after it was bought by the partnership that became Barclay Perkins, the brewery continued to be known as Thrale & Co until 1795 (Peter Matthias, The brewing industry in England, 1700-1830 – Page 223). It further states: “When Barclays merged with John Courage in 1955, the beer was rebranded “Courage Imperial Russian Stout”. The beer was being advertised as “Barclay’s Russian Stout” in 1922 and “Russian Imperial Stout” in 1934. It did not become “Imperial Russian Stout” until 1970.

“cellarmanship, art of” in this entry the temperatures are given in Fahrenheit only.

“Chevalier (barley)” entry at page 240 incorrectly spells the name of the barley. Like the surname of the man that developed it, it should be spelt with two L’s, Chevallier – see the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography here and the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica here.

“Chicago” entry on page 241 states “[T]he last old-time brewery in Chicago, Siebens, closed along with its beloved beer garden in 1967”. The Peter Hand Brewing Co., founded in 1891, changed its name to the Meister Brau Brewing Co. in 1967, and would go bankrupt in 1972, selling its labels to Miller Brewing Co. The brewery itself was bought by Fred Huber of Wisconsin’s Huber Brewing Co., who returned it to the “Peter Hand” name and continued brewing in Chicago until 1977.

“chicha” entry at page 242 does not reference indigenous corn beers made in colonial era north of Spanish territory. Beer of this sort was made in Virginia from the 1580s and New Sweden in what is now Delaware in 1640s. Smith in Beer in America: the Early Years places the date for Virginia at 1584. Older reference also exists for corn beer in Virginia in 1585. Early colonists north of Spanish territories were sometimes dependent on indigenous tribal communities for corn. The entry for “corn” cites the reference for “chicha” but does not include discussion about colonial brewing. The entry “brewing in Colonial America” at page 163 does reference corn brewing at Jamestown Virginia in 1629 but does not express its likely extent or the 16th century colonial experience. The enzyme ptyalin is mentioned but the entry does not mention that this is a form of α-amylase.

“chill proofing” this entry states that chill haze “occurs when a beer is chilled below approximately 1.6°C”. In fact chill haze can occur at temperatures much less cold.

“coaching inns” entry at page 256 of OCB: “Thrale’s Brewery, in which Dr Samuel Johnson was a shareholder, dates from the early 18th century. It closed following the death of its owner, Henry Thrale, in 1781 and merged with the rival Anchor Brewery founded by John Courage in 1787. Courage was taken over by members of the Barclay family, who also went into banking with some success. The name Courage was maintained and the Anchor Brewery survived until 1981 when its brands were transferred to a modern plant in Reading.” IMHAGOB states: “Roger has managed to disappear the 175-year history of Barclay Perkins.” In a tweet, entry’s author Roger Protz states: “I haven’t seen the book yet. Before you condemn me in public it’s worth bearing in mind that my text has been edited.” Reply. [See also comments at I might have a glass of beerand Shut Up About Barclay Perkins related to this passage.] Thrale’s brewery dated from at least 1616. Johnson was not a shareholder (there were no shareholders): he was an executor of Henry Thrale’s will, which was his only business link with the brewery.It was acquired in 1781 after Thrale’s death by a partnership involving John Perkins and members of the Barclay banking family. The name of the brewery became Barclay Perkins in 1795. Barclay Perkins merged with Courage in 1955. In addition, John Courage did not “found” the Anchor brewery in Southwark: 1787 was the year he bought it. (See Pudney, John, A Draught of Contentment, the story of the Courage group, 1971)

“cold break” this entry gives a figure in “g/bbl” but does not say if it is American or Imperial barrels.

“color” in the entry at page 258 it states “The flavours given by dark candi sugar (caramel, raisins, burnt sugar) are quite different than those given by roasted malts (coffee, chocolate), even when the color of the beer is similar. This is one reason why a Belgian dubbel does not taste like an English brown ale.” Except English brown ales are almost invariably coloured with invert sugar. Which gives exactly the flavours described as being typical of Belgian Dubbel. This entry gives totally different equations for converting between SRM and EBC colour values than are given in the entry “color units EBC”.

“contract brewing” in the entry at page 262 it states”…contract brewing came to prominence in the United States through the founding and subsequent success of the Boston Beer Company…” Three years before the first bottles of BBC’s Samuel Adams Boston Lager came off the line at Pittsburgh Brewing Co., Mathew Riech had begun the Old New York Brewing Company. Reich had his New Amersterdam Amber contract-brewed at F. X. Matt in Utica, NY- the first batch brewed in August, 1982. The beer, described as an “…all-malt, heavily hopped (Cascades and Hallertauer) brew, similar in style to British Beer”, was created with Joseph Owades, who would also be listed as the firm’s “brewmaster”. By 1986, Old New York would be the #1 “Micro Brewery” (as it was then spelled) on the annual list of the Brewer’s Digest US Brewery barrelage totals, with sales of 13,000 bbl (8,500 from their new NYC brewery/brewpub opened in 1985), nearly twice as large as #2 Sierra Nevada’s 6,800 bbl.

“coolship” entry at page 265 states that coolship “is the name given to the shallow, open vessel traditionally designed to cool hot wort prior to fermentation.” It is worth noting that the term “Coolship” is not in evidence in English brewing history (in English breweries such vessels were known simply as “coolers.”). However, it was certainly a term in wide use in the German-based American brewing industry, first in the original German kühlschiff/kuehlschiff, and eventually as the calque coolship. This reference shows the word as an entry in a technical German-English dictionary of 1884; today the Anchor Brewery still refers to its primary fermenters as coolships (e.g., here). While the original German term and the use of a large, shallow vessel for cooling and clarifying is relatively unknown to contemporary brewers and enthusiasts, the word koelschip, borrowed from Flemish, has recently been popularized alongside renewed interest in traditional lambic-making and spontaneous fermentation techniques more broadly. For example, in 2008, American brewery Allagash of Maine announced their inaugural use of a coolship in producing some of the first spontaneously-fermented beers outside of Belgium.

“Coors Brewing Company” entry at page 265 states”[I]n 1994 Coors produced the first flavored malt beverage… Zima.” There were a number of flavored beers marketed in the the late 1960’s-early 1970’s in the US, including the notorious Hop ‘n’ Gator from Pittsburgh Brewing Co. (beer flavored with Gatorade), Right Time from Hamm’s, Lime Lager from Lone Star, Pink Champale and National Brewing’s Malt Duck.

“Corn” entry on page 267 by Charles W. Bamforth begins “also known as maize”. “Maize” has a different entry on page 559 by Jennier Kling that begins “(corn)”. The two entries do not cross reference each other. They cover similar ground and both cross-reference to “chicha” which cross references back to “corn” but not “maize” even though the “chicha” entry at 242 entry states it is a “beverage made from maize (corn)…”

“Courage brewery” entry at page 269 states: “Over the course of 2 centuries, Courage was among the best-known names in British brewing.” In fact Courage was a small London ale brewer until the end of the 19th century: its output was one-thirtysecond that of Barclay Perkins in 1830, one eighth of Barclay Perkins in 1850 and still only half that of Barclay Perkins in 1880. It thus only became well-known in the London area at the end of the Victorian era, and only achieved national prominence after the mergers with Barclay Perkins in 1955 and Simonds of Reading in 1960.

“cream ale” in this entry the hop Northern Brewer is described as a US variety, when as is stated in the entry “Northern Brewer (hop)” it was bred in England at Wye College.

“Crystal malt” in this entry there is a typing error so a colour value is given as “EBS” when it should be “EBC”

“Czech Republic” entry at page 277 states: “The majority of beer sold in the Czech Republic is relatively light lager classified as výcepní [sic], these are brewed from original gravities between 8° Plato and 12° Plato.” Correctly spelled “výčepní,” this category of beer has long had an upper limit of 10° Plato. Czech beers of 11° and 12° Plato compose a different legal classification, called “ležák.” Also, it states at 278: “Beers having more than 5.5% ABV are referred to as special [sic] Speciální.” Called “speciální pivo” (or “speciál”), this legal classification is for beer “with an original gravity of 13° or higher.” The amount of alcohol has no bearing here. (Source for both: Czech State Agricultural and Food Inspectorate.) See more here.