Articles – L


“Lactic acid” this entry is erroneously cross referenced to ALPHA ACIDS.

“Lagering” in this entry it states that “Lagering reduces any acetic and lactic acids, for instance to fruity-tasting esters” yet acetic acid is present as the most common acid even in lagered beers. There is also unnecessary repetition in the entry as it states: “…diacetyl, as well as the precursors are reduced by as much as two-thirds. Diacetyl, which can be detected in tiny amounts, is reduced to fruit tasting acetoin”.

“last orders” at page 539 states: “Until 2005, British on-license hours were restricted to mornings/afternoons (10:30 or 11:00 am to 2:30 ormost 3:00pm) and evening sessions (5:00 pm to 10:30 or 11:00 pm). These hours were different on a Sunday.” This is both wrong and completely confused. Licensing hours after the First World War times were, depending on the district, 10am, 10:30am or 11:00am to 2:00 pm, 2:30 or 3:00pm at lunchtimes and 5:00pm to 10:00pm, 10:30pm or 11:00pm in the evenings. This arrangement ended in Scotland in 1976 and in England and Wales in 1988. In Scotland the Licensing (Scotland) Act of 1976 effectively gave each licensing area the right to choose its own opening hours, which eventually resulted in the end of the mid-afternoon shutdown. Then, in October 1977, Sunday drinking was permitted in Scotland for the first time in 124 years. The Licensing Act 1988 for England and Wales allowed pubs in the two countries to stay open from 11am to 11pm without a break, six days of the week, while Sunday closing time was extended from 2pm to 3pm. In 1995, pubs in England and Wales were finally allowed to stay open all afternoon on Sunday. What happened in 2005 was that under the Licensing Act 2003, which came into effect that year, pubs were allowed to apply for a licence to stay open 24 hours a day. Very few have done so.

“lauter tun” in this entry there is a typo. In the last sentence of the second paragraph “fit” should be “fitted”.

“London and Country Brewer, the” at page 553 states:

“Löwenbräu” entry, page 554, states “In 1974, Löwenbräu arrived in the Unites States by way a contract arrangement with the Miller Brewing Company in 1974.” This awkwardly redundant sentence seems to imply that Löwenbräu was first imported in 1974. Löwenbräu was exported to US before Prohibition and again after Repeal – with the obvious exception of the WWII era – and by the 1960’s was advertised as the “Americas #1 Selling Imported Beer”. Heineken would only overtake it in the early 1970’s. Miller’s contract included importation rights of the German-brewed Löwenbräu beers, “Light” and “Dark”, and it would not be until 1976 that they began brewing and distributing their domestic version which included corn as an adjunct and a much shorter lagering period. According to newspaper reports at the time, as late as June, 1977 Miller sold their domestic Löwenbräu only in 12 test markets.