Articles – M


“Mackeson” entry at page 557 states:”A stronger version, at 4.9% ABV, known as Mackeson Triple X,” was produced for the American market; it was brewed by the Hudepohl-Schoenling Brewing Company in Cincinnati, Ohio, for a time.” In the late 1980’s, Hudepohl-Schoenling created a subsidiary beer importing division called “Royal Class” which in the early 1990’s gained the import rights for the Whitbread beers, including Mackeson XXX Stout. In 1996, H-S sold their Cincinnati brewery to the Boston Beer Company and evolved into a “beer marketing company” with BBC continuing to brew their beers at their former home. TTB COLA’s were approved that same year and afterwards for Mackeson XXX Stout imported from the UK, and also labels for a brewed-under-license in Cincinnati version. Those labels read: “Brewed and bottled under the Strict Supervision of Whitbread’s Brewmasters, Whitbread PLC London, England by the Whitbread Beer Company, Cincinnati, OH, USA” In the late 1990’s, H-S sold out completely- with ownership of the domestic H-S brands to one company (brewery conglomerate Snyder International) and the newly renamed “Royal Imports, LLC” going to another (ex-Heileman executive Randy Hull). Royal Imports continued to import Mackeson and, apparently have it brewed by BBC at the same time (a UK TTB COLA was approved in 2000). 1999 COLA’s were clearly made out by BBC, with their brewery name and address in Cincinnati as well as their “30 Germania St.” Boston address. Some labels at the time would replace the “Whitbread” dba with “Royal Imports LLC, Cincinnati, OH, USA” as the brewery name. In addition, Royal Imports LLC contracted with The Lion in Wilkes-Barre, OH to brew Mackeson XXX Stout (COLA dated 2004) and bottle it in 22 ounce bottles. Royal stopped marketing the domestic version of Mackeson XXX Stout, perhaps not coincidentally, around the time InBev (Mackeson’s owner) bought Anheuser Busch. [sources- Over the Barrel – The Brewing History and Beer Culture of Cincinnati Vol. II by T. Holian and TTB COLA website ]

“Magic Hat Brewing Company” entry at page 557 states “By 2002, the brewery produced close to 120,000 hl of beer annually (almost 100,000 barrels).” According to the Modern Brewery Age (2003) annual list of “Top US Commercial Brewers”, in 2002 Magic Hat was the 37th largest brewery in the country with a barrelage of 38,555.

“Maize” entry on page 559 by Jennier Kling that begins “…(corn)…” The entry for “Corn” on page 267 by Charles W. Bamforth begins “also known as maize”. The two entries do not cross reference each other. They cover similar ground and both cross-reference to “chicha” which cross references back to “corn” but not “maize” even though the “chicha” entry at 242 entry states it is a “beverage made from maize (corn)…”

“malt”: crystal malt is made using the same stewing process as is described for caramel malts.

“malting” the malting process is described in more detail in the preceding entry “malt”.

“malt syrup” entry at page 568, the illustration labeled “Ink Blotter” captioned: “c. 1920 – During Prohibition, the Pabst Brewing Company began selling malt extract as an alternative revenue source.” The ink blotter is clearly from the Premier Malt Products Co., formerly known as the Decauter Brewing Co., of Peoria, IL (which was also an agent [distributor] for Pabst’s beers from 1912-1919). Premier manufactured and marketed the “Blue Ribbon” brand of malt syrup and was sued, unsuccessfully, by Pabst in 1918 (which had yet to enter the malt syrup field). Pabst’s own canned malt syrup during Prohibition would be marketed under the “Pabst” “Blue Label” and “Puritan” brand names (the latter purchased in 1930). Coincidentally, Pabst would merge with Premier at the tail end of Prohibition era in 1932. The head of Premier, Harris Perlstein, becoming President of the merged company known as the Premier-Pabst Corporation until 1938 when it reverted back to the Pabst Brewing Company name. ( Cochran, __The Pabst Brewing Company__, 1948). Pabst continued to market the “Blue Ribbon” malt syrup brand after Repeal, but when they closed the Peoria brewery (1980) they sold the brand names to a group of investors Premier Malt Products, Inc the next year.

“Maris Otter” entry at page 571 has a typo in line 12 – “Procter” for “Proctor”.

“Marston’s Brewery” at page 573 states: “Marston’s Brewery was founded in 1834 at the Horningblow Brewery in Burton-on-Trent …” The name of the district is Horninglow. The name of the town is Burton upon Trent.

“Meux Reid & Co” at page 583 states: “A member of the Meux family, Henry, built a new brewery, the Horseshoe, at the corner of Oxford Street and Tottenham Court Road.” Henry Meux did not build the Horse Shoe (sic) brewery, it had been in existence since, probably, at least 1785 and claimed a foundation date of 1764. Henry Meux acquired it in 1809. It also states, of the 1814 beer flood: “Eight people died as a result of drowning or intoxication.” No one died from intoxication. Some were drowned, some killed by falling rubble, or by being swept away and smashed against wreckage (see contemporary newspaper reports). It also states: “Meux also brewed at Nine Elms in South London”. This is a misleading oversimplification. Meux bought Thorne Brothers’ Nine Elms brewery in Wandsworth in 1914, and closed the Horse Shoe brewery in 1921, transferring production to Nine Elms.

“microbrewery” entry, page 586 states: “Prohibition…crushed all the small breweries in the (United States) and few of them ever recovered.” Nearly three decades after Repeal, in 1962 the US had about 75 breweries that were producing less than 100,000 barrels a year. Using the pre-2011 Brewers Association definition of “small brewer” as one under 2 million bbl/yr, that number jumps to over 140.

“Mild” at page 587 states that “In 1880 Chancellor of the Exchequer Gladstone estimated that the average OG of mild was 1057.” In 1880 William Gladstone was serving both as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister. He did not “estimate that the average OG of mild was 1057” – an OG of 1057 was set in the Free Mash-Tun Act of that year, otherwise the 1880 Finance Act, introduced by Gladstone in his capacity as Chancellor of the Exchequer, as the OG of the “standard barrel” against which a brewer’s output would be measured for tax purposes. See the OCB entry under “Free Mash-tun Act (1880)”. On page 588 there is space missing in the first paragraph so the word “afiltered” appears.

“milk stout” at page 588 states: “In 1907, the Mackeson Brewery in England, owned by Whitbread …” The Mackeson brewery was not acquired by Whitbread until 1925 (see the OCB entry under “Mackeson”). It also states: “… other breweries tried their hands at milk stout but never became major players in that speciality market.” There were a number of substantial rivals to Mackeson in the milk stout market, including Jubilee Stout from the Hope and Anchor brewery in Sheffield, later brewed by Bass Charrington, Velvet Stout, brewed by Courage, and Cream Label stout, brewed by Watneys (see Richard Boston, Beer and Skittles, 1976, page 58). It also states: “During a period of food rationing following World War II, the British government ordered its brewers to delete the word “milk” from their labels and advertising …” There was never any official “order” telling brewers in Britain to stop calling the beer “milk stout”. Brewers instead seem to have voluntarily decided to drop the word, rather than risk any legislation being introduced.

“Milwaukee, WI” entry (page 592) implies that the Detroit brewer Stroh was both a Milwaukee beer and a national brand “after World War II”. As late as the 1970’s (before purchasing both Schaefer and Schlitz) Stroh’s distribution area was limited to 10 states, including Michigan. (source- Stroh’s – The Fire Brewing Story brewery booklet, c. 1970). This entry (page 593) also states that”…in 2006, the once mighty Pabst Brewing Company closed its Milwaukee production facilities and moved it’s headquarters to Woodridge, IL.” Pabst, then controlled by the Kalmanovitz Charitable Trust (formerly the S&P Corp.), closed the Milwaukee brewery in 1996 and the corporate headquarters were moved to San Antonio, TX where S&P’s Pearl Brewing Co. was located. The Pearl brewery would be closed in 2001, when Pabst became a “virtual brewer”. Pabst’s corporate headquarters were moved to Illinois in 2006 and then to Los Angeles in 2011. See “Pabst Brewing Co. for sale once again” by Tom Daykin, Journal Sentinel, 2 November 2009.

“Molson Coors Brewing Company” page 596 entry states”After the merger of Molson and Coors (in 2005), the majority of the brazilian brewing unit was sold, leaving the company with a combined 18 breweries: 9 in the United States, 4 in Canada and 3 in the UK…” At the time of the merger, Coors did not have 9 breweries in the US (Molson, of course, had none). Coors had their main brewery in Golden, CO, the Sandlot “microbrewery” (now called “Blue Moon”) in Coors Field, Denver, the former Schlitz-Stroh brewery in Memphis (which the combined company almost immediately announced was closing) and the Elkin, VA “Shenandoah” plant which was not yet a full brewery, only a packaging facility. Also, Molson probably had more than four breweries in Canada at the time – though it could be correct: Edmonton, Regina, Toronto and Montreal?